A Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) is a research-based doctorate program that offers core specialization in a certain domain. A Ph.D. can be obtained in most academic areas and provides specific education in a discipline, followed by postdoctoral on-the-job training. An eligible academic authority supervises the research undertaken during the program. It is a degree awarded for research, which exhibits the competence of an individual to conduct independent research, contributing to the knowledge of the subject.
The Master of Philosophy or MPhil is an advanced postgraduate degree. An MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a thesis project is conducted under supervision. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.